Yeast-derived β-glucan augments the therapeutic efficacy mediated by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody in human carcinoma xenograft models

Carolina Salvador, Bing Li, Richard Hansen, Daniel E. Cramer, Maiying Kong, Jun Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Bevacizumab is a recombinant IgG1 humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Its proposed mechanism of action is independent of immune effector functions. Many human carcinomas not only secrete VEGF but also express membrane-bound VEGF. In addition, VEGF receptors are expressed on tumor cells. It is hypothesized that bevacizumab could bind membrane-bound VEGF or VEGF-VEGF receptor complexes on tumors, thereby initiating potential immunologic consequences. We previously showed that yeast-derived β-glucan functions with antitumor antibodies that activate complement to recruit complement receptor 3-expressing leukocytes capable of mediating complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of tumors opsonized with iC3b. In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy mediated by combining bevacizumab with yeast-derived β-glucan was studied in human carcinoma xenograft models. Experimental Design: Human tumor cell lines were screened for membrane-bound VEGF expression both in vitro and in vivo. Complement activation mediated by bevacizumab was examined. Tumor cell lines positive or negative for membrane-bound VEGF expression were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice to establish xenograft models. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with different regimens. Tumor regression and long-term survival were recorded. Results: Human ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells expressed membrane-bound VEGF both in vitro and in vivo. Bevacizumab was bound to membrane-bound VEGF, activated complement, and synergized with β-glucan to elicit cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo study showed that β-glucan could significantly augment the therapeutic efficacy mediated by bevacizumab. Conclusions: Yeast-derived β-glucan can synergize with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for the treatment of cancer with membrane-bound VEGF expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1239-1247
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2008

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