Xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumors and keratin-positive giant cell-rich soft tissue tumors: two aspects of a single entity with frequent HMGA2-NCOR2 fusions

Carina A. Dehner, Jonathan C. Baker, Robert Bell, Brendan C. Dickson, Robert E. Schmidt, Elizabeth G. Demicco, John S.A. Chrisinger

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14 Scopus citations


Xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumor (XGET) and keratin-positive giant cell-rich soft tissue tumor with HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion (KPGCT) are two recently described neoplasms with both distinct and overlapping clinical and histopathologic features. We hypothesized that XGET and KPGCT may be related and represent a histologic spectrum of a single entity. To test this, we sought to characterize the clinical, radiographic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular features of additional tumors with features of XGET and/or KPGCT, which we refer to descriptively as keratin-positive xanthogranulomatous/giant cell-rich tumors (KPXG/GCT). The archives were searched for potential cases of KPXG/GCT. Clinical and imaging features were noted. Slides were assessed for histologic and immunohistochemical findings. Ultrastructural and next generation RNA sequencing-based analysis were also performed. Nine cases were identified arising in seven women and two men [median age of 33 years (range: 12–87)]. Median tumor size was 4 cm (range: 2.4–14.0 cm) and tumors presented in the thigh (2), buttock (1), forearm (2), groin (1), cranial fossa (1), ilium (1), and tibia (1). Morphologically, tumors were most frequently characterized by a fibrous capsule, with associated lymphoid reaction, enclosing a polymorphous proliferation of histiocytes, giant cells (Touton and osteoclast-types), mixed inflammatory infiltrate, hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition, which imparted a variably xanthogranulomatous to giant cell tumor-like appearance. One case clearly showed mononuclear cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm characteristic of XGET. All cases expressed keratin and 7 of 9 were found to harbor HMGA2-NCOR2 fusions including cases with xanthogranulomatous appearance. One patient developed local recurrence and multifocal pulmonary lesions, which were radiographically suspicious for metastases. Shared clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features, and the shared presence of HMGA2-NCOR2 fusions supports interpretation of KPXG/GCT as a single entity which includes XGET and KPGCT. Given limited clinical follow-up to date and rare cases with apparently aggressive findings, we provisionally regard these tumors as having uncertain biologic potential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1656-1666
Number of pages11
JournalModern Pathology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


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