Inactivating mutations of the gene coding for phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog X-linked (PHEX) cause X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). A novel PHEX variant, c.*231A>G; exon 13–15 duplication, has emerged as a common cause of XLH in North America, emphasizing the importance of delineating its clinical presentation. Here, a comprehensive description of a five-generation American kindred of 22 treatment-naïve individuals harboring the c.*231A>G; exon 13–15 duplication is provided. After XLH was diagnosed in the proposita, pro-active family members used social media to facilitate a timely assessment of their medical history. Most had normal height and 50% were normophosphatemic. Thirteen had been given a diagnosis other than XLH, most commonly ankylosing spondylitis, and XLH was only established after genetic testing. The prevalent phenotypic characteristics of c.*231A>G; exon 13–15 duplication were disorders of dentition (68.2%), enthesopathies (54.5%), fractures/bone and joint conditions (50%), lower-limb deformities (40.9%), hearing loss/tinnitus (40.9%), gait abnormalities (22.7%), kidney stones/nephrocalcinosis (18.2%), chest wall disorders (9.1%), and Chiari/skull malformation (4.5%). More affected males than females, respectively, had gait abnormalities (42.9% versus 13.3%), lower-limb deformities (71.4% versus 26.7%), and enthesopathies (85.7% versus 40%). Single phenotypes, observed exclusively in females, occurred in 22.7% and multiple phenotypes in 77.3% of the cohort. However, as many as six characteristics could develop in either affected males or females. Our findings will improve diagnostic and monitoring protocols for XLH.
- DISEASES AND DISORDERS RELATED TO BONE
- DISORDERS OF CALCIUM/PHOSPHATE METABOLISM
- OSTEOMALACIA AND RICKETS