Wide Awake Trigger Finger Release Surgery: Prospective Comparison of Lidocaine, Marcaine, and Exparel

Constantinos Ketonis, Nayoung Kim, Frederic Liss, Benjamin Zmistowski, Jonas Matzon, Charles Leinberry, Mark Wang, Christopher Jones, Jack Abboudi, William Kirkpatrick, Asif M. Ilyas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: Local anesthetics are routinely used in hand surgery for procedures such as trigger finger releases (TFRs). However, little is known as to the difference in efficacy and patient experience with various local anesthetics. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of Lidocaine (L), Marcaine (M), and Exparel (E) to elucidate differences in pain scores and opioid consumption between these groups. Methods: All consecutive TFR performed over a 6-month period in 2014 at our institution were divided to receive Lidocaine, Marcaine, or Marcaine with postoperative Exparel. Pain levels, daily opioid consumption, and adverse reactions were recorded and analyzed for postoperative day (POD) 0-3. Results: A total of 154 patients were enrolled (L:53, M:50, E:51). The Lidocaine group reported the highest pain levels for POD 0-1. Marcaine pain levels were similar to Exparel on POD 0 but higher on POD 1. Opioid consumption on POD 0-1 was significantly different with E:27%, M:58% and L:59% as was the number of pills consumed (E:0.70, M: 1.08 and L:1.62). In addition, 50% of Exparel patients required no pain medications and experienced significantly less adverse reactions (E:4%, M:10%, L:13%). By POD 2-3, there were no statistical differences between the 3 groups. Conclusions: Patients treated with Marcaine attain better pain control than Lidocaine on POD 0-1but only patients who received Exparel maintained the lowest pain levels through POD 0-3 while using little-to-no opioid medications and with less adverse reactions than Lidocaine or Marcaine alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-183
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2016


  • Exparel
  • Lidocaine
  • Marcaine
  • trigger finger
  • wide awake


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