Who Is Less Likely to Ostracize? Higher Trait Mindfulness Predicts More Inclusionary Behavior

Eric E. Jones, James H. Wirth, Alex T. Ramsey, Rebecca L. Wynsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Despite the pain ostracism (being excluded and ignored) causes, researchers have minimally investigated factors related to reducing its occurrence. We investigated the association between higher trait mindfulness (the tendency to be attentive to the present moment) and lower engagement in ostracism. In Study 1, employed adults scoring higher on trait mindfulness reported ostracizing coworkers less. In Study 2, participants possessing higher levels of trait mindfulness demonstrated greater inclusion of a fellow group member being ostracized by others in the group. Results suggested that attention, rather than empathy, was the psychological process responsible for greater inclusion of an ostracized group member by mindful individuals. Study 3 supported this conclusion because participants responded similarly to those high in trait mindfulness when they were instructed to pay attention and ensure all players were included equally. Overall, we found that people with higher levels of trait mindfulness are more attentive to targets of ostracism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-119
Number of pages15
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • exclusion
  • inclusion
  • mindfulness
  • ostracism
  • sources of ostracism


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