Wheezing can be caused by a variety of conditions. In hospitalized adults, primary considerations include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute bronchospasm related to an allergic reaction. The treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD is similar; some key differences are discussed. Patients with COPD are at high risk of readmission, and hospitals see a reduction in reimbursement for excessive readmissions. Strategies for reducing readmissions in patients with asthma and COPD include promoting medication adherence, smoking cessation, action plan/self-management development, and vaccination.