What is the Risk for Peritoneal Metastases and Survival Afterwards in T4 Colon Cancers?

Abhineet Uppal, Beth Helmink, Travis E. Grotz, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Keith F. Fournier, Sa Nguyen, Melissa W. Taggart, John Paul Shen, Brian K. Bednarski, Yi Qian N. You, George J. Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Patients with T4 colon adenocarcinomas have an increased risk of peritoneal metastases (PM) but the histopathologic risk factors for its development are not well-described. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with PM, time to recurrence, and survival after recurrence among patients with T4 colon cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with pathologic T4 colon cancer who underwent curative resection from 2005 to 2017 were identified from a prospectively maintained institutional database and classified by recurrence pattern: (a) none – 68.8%; (b) peritoneal only – 7.9%; (c) peritoneal and extraperitoneal – 9.9%; and (d) extraperitoneal only – 13.2%. Associations between PM development and patient, primary tumor, and treatment factors were assessed. Results: Overall, 151 patients were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 66.2 months; 27 patients (18%) developed PM (Groups B and C) and 20 (13%) patients recurred at non-peritoneal sites only (Group D). Median time to developing metastases was shorter for Groups B and C compared with Group D (B and C: 13.7 months; D: 46.7 months; p = 0.022). Tumor deposits (TDs) and nodal stage were associated with PM (p < 0.05), and TDs (p = 0.048) and LVI (p = 0.015) were associated with additional extraperitoneal recurrence. Eleven (41%) patients with PM underwent salvage surgery, and median survival after recurrence was associated with the ability to undergo cytoreduction (risk ratio 0.20, confidence interval 0.06–0.70). Conclusion: PM risk after resection of T4 colon cancer is independently associated with factors related to lymphatic spread, such as N stage and TDs. Well-selected patients can undergo cytoreduction with long-term survival. These findings support frequent postoperative surveillance and aggressive early intervention, including cytoreduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4224-4233
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


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