What is the association between sports participation and the development of proximal femoral cam deformity?

Jeffrey J. Nepple, Jonathan M. Vigdorchik, John C. Clohisy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is recognized as a common cause of hip pain and intra-articular disorders in athletes. Studies have suggested a link between participation in athletics during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities of the proximal femoral head-neck junction. Purpose: To investigate the association of sporting activity participation during adolescence and the development of cam deformity. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify potential studies. Abstracts and manuscripts (when applicable) were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, including 8 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity in athletes with that in controls and 3 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity before and after physeal closure (2 with both). A meta-analysis was performed with pooling of data and random-effects modeling to compare rates of cam deformity between athletes and controls. Results: High-level male athletes are 1.9 to 8.0 times more likely to develop a cam deformity than are male controls. The pooled prevalence rate (by hip) of cam deformity in male athletes was 41%, compared with 17% for male controls. The pooled mean alpha angle among male athletes was 61°, compared with 51° for male controls. Conclusion: Males participating in specific high-level impact sports (hockey, basketball, and possibly soccer) are at an increased risk of physeal abnormalities of the anterosuperior head-neck junction that result in a cam deformity at skeletal maturity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2833-2840
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume43
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Keywords

  • basketball
  • femoroacetabular impingement
  • hip
  • ice hockey

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