PURPOSE: To quantitatively compare computed radiography (CR) and screen- film radiography (SFR) in the detection of pneumothorax in an animal model that simulates the neonate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three rabbits underwent placement of 5-F catheters in the right pleural space. Eight CR and eight SFR images were obtained. Volume-controlled pneumothorax was induced by incrementally injecting 4 cm3 of air (24 cm3 total) and four CR and four SFR images were obtained after each injection. Four radiologists blindly viewed the images twice (eight readings per image, 1,600 total observations). A dichotomous yes-no score for the presence of pneumothorax was used to calculate the volume detection threshold (VDT), defined as the air volume at which 50% of the pneumothoraces can be detected. The authors plotted the likelihood of a pneumothorax against the air volume by using the confidence indicator. RESULTS: Intraobserver VDT values for CR and SFR were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: CR is as accurate as SFR in the detection of pneumothorax in this quantitative animal model.