Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men

Eric B. Rimm, Meir J. Stampfer, Alberto Ascherio, Edward Giovannucci, Graham A. Colditz, Walter C. Willett

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Abstract

Background: The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins increases their incorporation into the arterial intima, an essential step in atherogenesis. Although dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E, have been hypothesized to prevent coronary heart disease, prospective epidemiologic data are sparse. Methods: In 1986, 39,910 U.S. male health professionals 40 to 75 years of age who were free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia completed detailed dietary questionnaires that assessed their usual intake of vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E in addition to other nutrients. During four years of follow-up, we documented 667 cases of coronary disease. Results: After controlling for age and several coronary risk factors, we observed a lower risk of coronary disease among men with higher intakes of vitamin E (P for trend = 0.003). For men consuming more than 60 IU per day of vitamin E, the multivariate relative risk was 0.64 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.83) as compared with those consuming less than 7.5 IU per day. As compared with men who did not take vitamin E supplements, men who took at least 100 IU per day for at least two years had a multivariate relative risk of coronary disease of 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.84). Carotene intake was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease among those who had never smoked, but it was inversely associated with the risk among current smokers (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.82) and former smokers (relative risk, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.94). In contrast, a high intake of vitamin C was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease. Conclusions: These data do not prove a causal relation, but they provide evidence of an association between a high intake of vitamin E and a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men. Public policy recommendations with regard to the use of vitamin E supplements should await the results of additional studies., Antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E1,2 are hypothesized to help prevent atherosclerosis by blocking the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which may be selectively incorporated by monocytes in the arterial wall3,4. Oxidized LDL may also contribute to atherogenicity by reducing macrophage motility in the intima,5 increasing monocyte accumulation,6 and increasing cytotoxicity7. Accumulating laboratory data support a link between dietary antioxidants and a reduced risk of atherosclerosis, but epidemiologic evidence is limited810. We therefore examined these relations in men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods The Health Professionals Follow-up…

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1450-1456
Number of pages7
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume328
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - May 20 1993

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