Vitamin D Status in Children Wit Forearm Fractures: Incidence and Risk Factors

Pooya Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid Mohseni, Arya Minaie, Gary M. Kiebzak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Introduction: The association between vitamin D status and fracture characteristics in children remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficient or insufficient children would have an increased risk of forearm fractures severe enough to require surgical management. Methods: One hundred children with low-energy forearm fractures were prospectively enrolled from a single hospital. Each participant answered a questionnaire focusing on the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Fractures were categorized as requiring nonsurgical or surgical management. Vitamin D status was based on the measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration obtained during the clinic visit and compared between the two fracture groups. Results: The cohort exhibited a mean age of 9.8 ± 3.2 years (range: 3-15 years), comprising 65 (65%) men and 35 (35%) women. Overall, mean 25(OH)D was 27.5 ± 8.3 ng/mL. Using the Endocrine Society guidelines, 21% of patients were categorized as “vitamin D deficient” (25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/mL) and 49% as “vitamin D insufficient” (25(OH)D: 21 to 29 ng/mL). Stratification by intervention revealed a mean 25(OH)D of 23.3 ± 8.8 ng/mL in the surgical group (n = 12) and 28.1 ± 8.1 in the nonsurgical group (n = 88) (P = 0.057). Fifty percent of the surgical group were “vitamin D deficient” compared with 17% of the nonsurgical group (P = 0.017). The relative risk of requiring surgical treatment in children with forearm fracture and vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D, 20 ng/mL) was 3.8. 25(OH)D level, negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.21, P = 0.044); 9 surgical patients were overweight or obese (as defined by the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 25(OH)D level was significantly lower in non-Caucasians compared with Caucasians (26.0 ± 7.2 versus 32.5 ± 9.9 ng/mL; P = 0.0008). Discussion: Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with forearm fractures and may be a contributing risk factor for forearm fractures requiring surgical management in children. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency and inefficiency are common in children with low energy forearm fractures, especially in obese children and in fractures requiring surgical treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere20.00150
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Global Research and Reviews
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020


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