Immunofluorescence is one of the most widely used techniques to visualize target antigens with high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for the accurate identification and localization of proteins, glycans, and small molecules. While this technique is well-established in two-dimensional (2D) cell culture, less is known about its use in three-dimensional (3D) cell models. Ovarian cancer organoids are 3D tumor models that recapitulate tumor cell clonal heterogeneity, the tumor microenvironment, and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Thus, they are superior to cell lines for the evaluation of drug sensitivity and functional biomarkers. Therefore, the ability to utilize immunofluorescence on primary ovarian cancer organoids is extremely beneficial in understanding the biology of this cancer. The current study describes the technique of immunofluorescence to detect DNA damage repair proteins in high-grade serous patient-derived ovarian cancer organoids (PDOs). After exposing the PDOs to ionizing radiation, immunofluorescence is performed on intact organoids to evaluate nuclear proteins as foci. Images are collected using z-stack imaging on confocal microscopy and analyzed using automated foci counting software. The described methods allow for the analysis of temporal and special recruitment of DNA damage repair proteins and colocalization of these proteins with cell-cycle markers.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere64881
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number192
StatePublished - Feb 2023


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