Visible spatial frequency domain imaging with a digital light microprojector

Alexander J. Lin, Adrien Ponticorvo, Soren D. Konecky, Haotian Cui, Tyler B. Rice, Bernard Choi, Anthony J. Durkin, Bruce J. Tromberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


There is a need for cost effective, quantitative tissue spectroscopy and imaging systems in clinical diagnostics and pre-clinical biomedical research. A platform that utilizes a commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) based projector, cameras, and scaled Monte Carlo model for calculating tissue optical properties is presented. These components are put together to perform spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), a model-based reflectance technique that measures and maps absorption coefficients (ìa) and reduced scattering coefficients (ì0 s ) in thick tissue such as skin or brain. We validate the performance of the flexible LED and modulation element (FLaME) system at 460, 530, and 632 nm across a range of physiologically relevant ìa values (0.07 to 1.5 mm.1) in tissue-simulating intralipid phantoms, showing an overall accuracy within 11% of spectrophotometer values for ìa and 3% for ì0 s . Comparison of oxy- and total hemoglobin fits between the FLaME system and a spectrophotometer (450 to 1000 nm) is differed by 3%. Finally, we acquire optical property maps of a mouse brain in vivo with and without an overlying saline well. These results demonstrate the potential of FLaME to perform tissue optical property mapping in visible spectral regions and highlight how the optical clearing effect of saline is correlated to a decrease in ì0 s of the skull.

Original languageEnglish
Article number096007
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2013


  • Tissue optics
  • absorption
  • microprojector
  • neuroimaging
  • scattering
  • spatial frequency domain imaging


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