Replication-selective oncolytic viruses have emerged as a new treatment platform for cancers. However, selectivity and potency need to be improved before virotherapy can become a standard treatment modality. In addition, mechanisms that can be incorporated to enable targeting a broad range of cancer types are highly desirable. Cancer cells are well known to have multiple blocks in apoptosis pathways. On the other hand, viruses have evolved to express numerous antiapoptotic genes to antagonize apoptosis induced upon infection. Viruses with deletions in antiapoptotic genes can therefore be complemented by antiapoptotic genetic changes in cancer cells for efficient replication and oncolysis. In this review, we summarize the recent development of this concept, the potential obstacles, and future directions for optimization.
- Gene therapy