Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients are susceptible to life-threatening infections by the Burkholderia cepacia complex. We used leukocytes from CGD and healthy donors and compared cell association, invasion, and cytokine induction by Burkholderia multivorans strains. A CGD isolate, CGD1, showed higher cell association than that of an environmental isolate, Env1, which correlated with cell entry. All B. multivorans strains associated significantly more with cells from CGD patients than with those from healthy donors. Similar findings were observed with another CGD pathogen, Serratia marcescens, but not with Escherichia coli. In a mouse model of CGD, strain CGD1 was virulent while Env1 was avirulent. B. multivorans organisms were found in the spleens of CGD1-infected mice at levels that were 1,000 times higher than those found in Env1-infected mice, which was coincident with higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Taken together, these results may shed light on the unique susceptibility of CGD patients to specific pathogens.