Virtual and Augmented Reality in Cardiovascular Care: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

Christian Jung, Georg Wolff, Bernhard Wernly, Raphael Romano Bruno, Marcus Franz, P. Christian Schulze, Jennifer N.Avari Silva, Jonathan R. Silva, Deepak L. Bhatt, Malte Kelm

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Applications of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) assist both health care providers and patients in cardiovascular education, complementing traditional learning methods. Interventionalists have successfully used VR to plan difficult procedures and AR to facilitate complex interventions. VR/AR has already been used to treat patients, during interventions in rehabilitation programs and in immobilized intensive care patients. There are numerous additional potential applications in the catheterization laboratory. By using AR, interventionalists could combine visual fluoroscopy information projected and registered on the patient body with data derived from preprocedural imaging and live fusion of different imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy with echocardiography. Persistent technical challenges to overcome include the integration of different imaging modalities into VR/AR and the harmonization of data flow and interfaces. Cybersickness might exclude some patients and users from the potential benefits of VR/AR. Critical ethical considerations arise in the application of VR/AR in vulnerable patients. In addition, digital applications must not distract physicians from the patient. It is our duty as physicians to participate in the development of these innovations to ensure a virtual health reality benefit for our patients in a real-world setting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current and future role of VR and AR in different fields within cardiology, its challenges, and perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-532
Number of pages14
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • augmented reality
  • cardiovascular care
  • imaging
  • virtual reality


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