Objective: Our hypothesis was that among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), venoarterial (VA), compared to venovenous (VV), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is associated with an increased risk of mortality or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Design/methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of infants in the Children’s Hospitals Neonatal Database from 2010 to 2016 with moderate or severe HIE, gestational age ≥36 weeks, and ECMO initiation <7 days of age. The primary outcome was mortality or ICH. Results: Severe HIE was more common in the VA ECMO group (n = 57), compared to the VV ECMO group (n = 53) (47.4% vs. 26.4%, P = 0.02). VA ECMO was associated with a significantly higher risk of death or ICH [57.9% vs. 34.0%, aOR 2.39 (1.08–5.28)] and mortality [31.6% vs. 11.3%, aOR 3.06 (1.08–8.68)], after adjusting for HIE severity. Conclusions: In HIE, VA ECMO was associated with a higher incidence of mortality or ICH. VV ECMO may be beneficial in this population.