Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent decades, US, CT, and MRI have surpassed catheter-based angiography as the imaging examinations of choice for evaluation of vascular structures and identification of thrombus owing to their ready availability, noninvasive nature, and, in the cases of US and MRI, lack of exposure to ionizing radiation. As a result, VTE and associated complications are commonly identified in day-to-day radiologic practice across a variety of clinical settings. A wide range of hereditary and acquired conditions can increase the risk for development of venous thrombosis, and many patients with these conditions may undergo imaging for unrelated reasons, leading to the incidental detection of VTE or one of the associated complications. Although the development of VTE may be an isolated occurrence, the imaging findings, in conjunction with the clinical history and vascular risk factors, may indicate a predisposing condition or underlying diagnosis. Furthermore, awareness of the many clinical conditions that result in an increased risk of venous thrombosis may aid in detection of thrombus and any concomitant complications. For these reasons, it is important that practicing radiologists be familiar with the multimodality imaging findings of thrombosis, understand the spectrum of diseases that contribute to the development of thrombosis, and recognize the potential complications of hypercoagulable states and venous thrombosis.