Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease entity that encompasses both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. During the past decade there have been significant advances in the understanding of prophylaxis and treatment of VTE. There is an extensive research base from which conclusions can be drawn, but the heterogeneity within the rehabilitation patient population makes the development of rigid VTE protocols challenging and overwhelming for the busy clinician. Given the prevalence of this condition and its associated morbidity and mortality, we review the evidence for the prevention, identification, and optimal treatment of VTE in the rehabilitation population. Our goal is to highlight studies that have the most clinical applicability for the care of VTE patients from a physiatrist's perspective. At times, information about acute care protocols is included in our discussion because these situations are encountered during the consultation process that identifies patients for rehabilitation needs.