While most muscle injuries are recognized clinically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the ideal noninvasive test to assess their extent and severity, which impacts therapy and influences prognosis. Typical examples of these injuries include muscle contusions, lacerations, sprains, and delayed onset muscle soreness. For other less common traumatic muscle conditions (exertional compartment syndrome, muscle herniation, and traumatic denervation), the clinical findings are often subtle or ambiguous and MRI will indicate the correct diagnosis. In patients with known muscle trauma, MRI can detect complications such as hematoma or seroma development, scarring and fibrosis, and myositis ossificans. This article illustrates the spectrum of muscle injuries, emphasizing the value of MRI in their diagnosis.