Validation of a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bloodstream infection prediction score in the hematologic malignancy population

Emily L. Gill, Christian M. Gill, Colleen McEvoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) bloodstream infections (BSIs) contribute to significant mortality in hematologic malignancy (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. A risk score to predict SM BSI could reduce time to appropriate antimicrobial therapy (TTAT) and improve patient outcomes. A single center cohort study of hospitalized adults with HM/HSCT was conducted. Patients had ≥ 1 blood culture with a Gram-negative (GN) organism. A StenoSCORE was calculated for each patient. The StenoSCORE2 was developed using risk factors for SM BSI identified via logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Sensitivity and specificity for the StenoSCORE and StenoSCORE2 were calculated. Thirty-six SM patients and 534 non-SM patients were assessed. A StenoSCORE ≥ 33 points was 80% sensitive, 68% specific, and accurately classified 69% of GN BSIs. StenoSCORE2 variables included acute leukemia, prolonged neutropenia, mucositis, ICU admission, recent meropenem and/or cefepime exposure. The StenoSCORE2 performed better than the StenoSCORE (ROC AUC 0.84 vs. 0.77). A StenoSCORE2 ≥ 4 points was 86% sensitive, 76% specific, and accurately classified 77% of GN BSIs. TTAT was significantly longer for patients with SM BSI compared with non-SM BSI (45.16 h vs. 0.57 h; p < 0.0001). In-hospital and 28-day mortality were significantly higher for patients with SM BSI compared to non-SM BSI (58.3% vs. 18.5% and 66.7% vs. 26.4%; p-value < 0.0001). The StenoSCORE and StenoSCORE2 performed well in predicting SM BSIs in patients with HM/HSCT and GN BSI. Clinical studies evaluating whether StenoSCORE and/or StenoSCORE2 implementation improves TTAT and clinical outcomes are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1745-1752
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Hematology
Volume103
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024

Keywords

  • Bloodstream infection
  • Hematologic malignancy
  • Risk score
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

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