Validation of a Spanish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)

Carlos Javier Guevara, Chad Cook, Ricardo Pietrobon, Guillermina Rodríguez, James Nunley, Laurence D. Higgins, Steven A. Olson, Thomas Parker Vail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a linguistically appropriate, culturally adapted, and appropriately validated Spanish version of the SMFA (SMFA-Mex). DESIGN: Validation of a survey-based outcome instrument. SETTING: Busy state hospital in southern Mexico. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive trauma patients with a variety of orthopedic disorders. INTERVENTION: N/A. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The SMFA-Mex was forward and back translated, administered to orthopedic trauma patients, and compared against the Spanish version of the SF-36s for criterion validity. Statistical analysis included factor analysis, criterion validation with the SF-36, and internal measures of reliability. RESULTS: Factor analysis demonstrated three separate subscale dimensions: 1) upper-extremity dysfunction, 2) lower-extremity dysfunction, and 3) lifestyle alterations. Item analysis showed a high degree of internal consistency for the three subscales (subscale 1, r = 0.95; subscale 2, r = 0.94; subscale 3, r = 0.92). Test-retest reliability at 7 days was 0.93 for the upper-extremity dysfunction subscale, 0.95 for the lower-extremity dysfunction subscale, and 0.92 for the lifestyle-alterations subscale. Construct validity was established by comparison of the Brazilian version of the SF-36. CONCLUSIONS: The SMFA-Mex was successfully translated and culturally adapted from the English original. The SMFA-Mex demonstrated adequate scale reliability and validity and yielded three distinct subscales using factor analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)623-629
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of orthopaedic trauma
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Reliability
  • SF-36
  • Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)
  • Validation

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Validation of a Spanish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this