Escherichia coli FimH adhesin mediates binding to the bladder mucosa. In mice, a FimH vaccine protects against bacterial challenge. In this study, 4 monkeys were inoculated with 100 μg of FimCH adhesin-chaperone complex mixed with MF59 adjuvant, and 4 monkeys were given adjuvant only intramuscularly. After 2 doses (day 0 and week 4), a booster at 48 weeks elicited a strong IgG antibody response to FimH in the vaccinated monkeys. All 8 monkeys were challenged with 1 mL of 108 E. coli cystitis isolate NU14. Three of the 4 vaccinated monkeys were protected from bacteruria and pyuria; all control monkeys were infected. These findings suggest that a vaccine based on the FimH adhesin of E. coli type 1 pili may have utility in preventing cystitis in humans.