The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015–2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies. Among the greatest challenges for the rapid implementation of immunogenic and protective ZIKV vaccines will be addressing the potential for exacerbating Dengue virus infection or causing Guillain–Barré syndrome through production of cross-reactive immunity targeting related viral or host proteins. Here, we review vaccine strategies under development for ZIKV and the issues surrounding their usage.