Utilizing a Questionnaire to Implement a Risk-based Antibiotic Prophylaxis Protocol for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy

Zeynep G. Gul, Michelle Yu, Danielle R. Sharbaugh, Kelly R. Pekala, Jonathan Y. Lin, Adam J. Sharbaugh, Toby S. Zhu, Hermoon Worku, Kody M. Armann, Chandler N. Hudson, Jordan M. Hay, Valentina Grajales, Jonathan G. Yabes, Benjamin J. Davies, Bruce L. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To develop and evaluate a risk-based antibiotic prophylaxis protocol for patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy. Methods: We created a risk-based protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis before transrectal prostate biopsy. Patients were screened for infection risk-factors with a self-administered questionnaire. The protocol was implemented from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2020. We compared patient risk-factors, antibiotic regimens, and 30-day infection rates for patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsies during the intervention and for a 3-month period before the intervention. Results: There were 116 prostate biopsies in the preintervention group and 104 in the intervention group. Although there was no significant difference in the number of high-risk patients between the 2 groups (48% vs 55%; P = .33), the percentage of patients treated with augmented prophylaxis decreased from 74% to 45% (P = 0.03). The duration of antibiotic administration and the median number of doses prescribed also decreased significantly. Despite significant decreases in antibiotic use, there were no differences in infection rates (5% vs 5%; P = .90) or sepsis rates (1% vs 2%; P = .60). Conclusion: We developed a risk-based protocol for prophylactic antibiotics before prostate biopsy. The protocol was associated with less antibiotic use but did not lead to an increase in infectious complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-24
Number of pages7
StatePublished - May 2023


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