Utility of 90-Day Mortality vs 30-Day Mortality as a Quality Metric for Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement Outcomes

Sameer Hirji, Siobhan McGurk, Spencer Kiehm, Julius Ejiofor, Fernando Ramirez-Del Val, Ahmed A. Kolkailah, Natalia Berry, Piotr Sobieszczyk, Marc Pelletier, Pinak Shah, Patrick O'Gara, Tsuyoshi Kaneko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Questions have recently arisen as to whether 30-day mortality is a reasonable metric for understanding institutional practice differences after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Objective: To examine the utility of 30-day vs 90-day mortality after TAVR and SAVR as a mortality quality metric. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative, multicenter, cohort study analyzed data from Medicare beneficiaries undergoing TAVR and SAVR procedures from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and other heart valve or other major open-heart procedures were excluded. Hospitals that performed fewer than 50 TAVR or 70 SAVR procedures per year were excluded to ensure reliable estimates and to reduce the risks of inflated results because of small institutional sample sizes. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to August 2019. Exposures: Hospitals were ranked into top- (10%), middle- (80%), and bottom-performing (10%) groups based on their 4-year mean 30-day mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in hospital performance rankings at 90 days and 1 year and correlation of 30- and 90-day mortality with 1-year mortality were examined. Results: A total of 30329 TAVR admissions at 184 hospitals and 26021 SAVR admissions at 191 hospitals were evaluated. For TAVR, 40 hospitals (21.7%) changed performance rankings at 90 days: 13 (48.1%) in the top-performing group and 8 (29.6%) in the bottom-performing group. At 1 year, 56 hospitals (30.4%), which included 21 (77.8%) in the top-performing group and 12 (44.4%) in the bottom-performing group, changed rankings. Similar findings were observed for SAVR, with an overall 90-day conversion rate of 17.3% and a 1-year rate of 30.3%. These findings persisted after adjusting for the differences in patient risk profiles among the 3 groups. Capturing 90-day events was also more robustly informative regarding expected 1-year outcomes after both TAVR and SAVR, largely owing to the observed plateau in the instantaneous hazard observed beyond this point. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that evaluation of hospital performance based on 30-day mortality may underestimate outcomes and therefore substantially misrepresent institutional performance after TAVR and SAVR compared with 90-day mortality, even after risk adjustment. Although 30-day mortality has been validated, 90-day mortality may be a more reliable outcome metric for measuring hospital performance and capturing procedure-related mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-165
Number of pages10
JournalJAMA Cardiology
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2020

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