Dobutomine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed after coronary angiography to evaluate the need to perform percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for 46 stenoses of moderate severity (50% to 80%) in 46 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the DSE results in the distribution of the coronary artery with the lesion of moderate severity: group I (n = 32) were those without inducible myocardial ischemia; PTCA was not performed. Group II (n = 14) were those who exhibited myocardial ischemia; PTCA was performed in 12. The 2 groups were comparable in terms of clinical characteristics. Follow-up DSE was performed ≤48 hours after PTCA, at 3 months, and 6 to 12 months after the first DSE. In group I at 3 months, DSE results were still negative in the distribution of the vessel with the moderately severe lesion in 24 patients; only 1 patient had a positive result, and 8 patients who refused DSE remained clinically stable. At 6 to 12 months (mean 7 ± 2), 26 patients had negative study results; 3 patients who refused follow-up DSE remained clinically stable. In group II, 12 of 14 patients with inducible ischemia on the initial DSE underwent PTCA. Early follow-up DSE (≤48 hours) was negative in 7, and 4 had persistent inducible wall motion abnormalities in the myocardium subtended by the coronary artery in which the PTCA had been performed; 1 study was not performed. At 3-month follow-up, 1 patient who had an early DSE study positive for ischemia had no demonstrable ischemia, and 3 patients continued to have myocardial ischemia in the myocardium subtended by the coronary artery in which the PTCA was performed. At the 6- to 12-month follow-up (mean 7 ± 1), 8 patients had DSE studies that remained negative for inducible ischemia. Thus, DSE is an appropriate test to assess the physiologic significance of coronary artery lesions of moderate severity in patients being evaluated for PTCA.