Use of second doses of Valtoco® (diazepam nasal spray) across 24 hours after the initial dose for out-of-hospital seizure clusters: Results from a phase 3, open-label, repeat-dose safety study

DIAZ.001.05 Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: An exploratory analysis from a long-term, phase 3, open-label, repeat-dose safety study of diazepam nasal spray for acute treatment of seizure clusters assessed the use of a second dose up to 24 hours after the initial dose and effectiveness in potentially reducing the number of seizures. Methods: Seizures and doses were recorded in diaries. Results: Of 175 patients enrolled, 163 received ≥1 dose of diazepam nasal spray and were included in the safety population; those patients received a total of 4390 doses for a total of 3853 seizure clusters. Less than half of these patients used a second dose a least once during the study (79 patients [48.5%]), with a total of 485 second doses for seizure clusters (12.6% of all seizure clusters). Among these 79 patients, 33 (41.8%) used only one second dose during the study (range: 1–82). The proportion of seizure clusters treated with a second dose over time was consistently low across 24 h: 0–4 h, 152 (3.9%); 4–6 h, 72 (1.9%); 6–8 h, 39 (1.0%); 8–12 h, 55 (1.4%); 12–16 h, 42 (1.1%); 16–20 h, 42 (1.1%); 20–24 h, 83 (2.2%). Rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and treatment-related TEAEs occurring within 1 day of a second dose were low (15.2% and 5.1%, respectively). Significance: Patients with epilepsy may experience seizure clusters lasting up to 24 hours, and little is known about the effectiveness of rescue therapies for that duration. The current labeling of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved outpatient treatments for seizure clusters (rectal diazepam, intranasal midazolam, and diazepam nasal spray) allows for a second dose, if needed, for control. These findings support the safety profile of second doses, and the low use supports the effectiveness of diazepam nasal spray across 24 hours.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEpilepsia
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

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