Data were collected of children admitted with ALF to 16 US pediatric liver transplant centers from 2008 to 2013 using the PHIS for a retrospective analysis of PALF trends. Patient data linked to the principal diagnosis code for acute necrosis of the liver (570.00) were analyzed for the following: demographics, regional differences, changes over time, pharmaceutical trends, procedural trends, associated diagnoses, and patient outcomes. In 52.5% of 583 patients who met the selection criteria for PALF, the etiology remained undetermined. Acetaminophen toxicity (18.7%) was the most common identifiable etiology, and hepatic encephalopathy (38.6%) was the most common complication. Mortality was lower than previously reported; 95.4% survived and 73.2% survived without a liver transplant. Acute respiratory failure (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035), acute kidney injury (OR = 3.6, p = 0.003), and cerebral edema (OR = 3.6, p = 0.02) were independently associated with increased risk of mortality. The use of N-acetylcysteine in non-acetaminophen-related ALF, the use of intracranial pressure monitoring, and the proportion of sepsis decreased significantly during the study period. The PHIS database can be a useful tool to study the future trends of PALF patients.
- Pediatric Health Information System
- acute liver failure
- hepatic encephalopathy
- liver transplant