Improved methods are needed to evaluate new treatments for filarial infections. We have recently developed a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay to detect circulating parasite antigen in sera from Brugia malayi-infected jirds. In the present study, parasite antigen levels were compared to parasitological parameters after treatment of B. malayi-infected jirds with CGP 20376 that has been reported to be active against both microfilariae and adult worms of this parasite. Microfilariae were cleared promptly and permanently after CGP 20376 treatment, and no adult worm was recovered in jirds at necropsy 20 wk after treatment. In contrast, untreated animals had sustained microfilaremia throughout the course of the study, and adult worms were recovered in all control animals (mean worm recovery; 24.3 ± 7.8 SE). Parasite antigen was present in sera from all infected animals before treatment. Parasite antigen titers in sera were unchanged 5 wk after treatment but fell to undetectable levels in 4 of 6 animals by 20 wk after treatment. Low-level antigenemia was detected in 2 of 6 animals at 20 wk, perhaps suggesting incomplete killing of parasites or incomplete clearance of antigen. Parasite antigen levels were stable throughout the study in control animals. These preliminary results suggest that parasite antigen detection is useful as a means of noninvasively monitoring the efficacy of anti-filarial drug therapy.