Objective: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses and mucosa. Topical nasal corticosteroids are a mainstay treatment for CRS by reducing sinonasal inflammation and improving mucociliary clearance. However, topical corticosteroids have limited paranasal distribution, and patient response to treatment has been variable in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Thus, there is significant interest in evaluating the efficacy of nasal steroids delivered by nasal irrigation in order to improve penetration and absorption of topical steroids into the sinonasal mucosa. In this review, we discuss the use of off-label nasal steroid irrigations in the management of CRS. Methods: A review of clinical trials evaluating the use of nasal steroid irrigations for CRS in the PubMed electronic database was performed. Results: Of the 12 clinical studies identified, 10 evaluated budesonide irrigations while the remaining 2 focused on mometasone. The overwhelming majority of studies for both budesonide and mometasone supported the use of nasal irrigations with corticosteroids over nasal corticosteroid sprays alone. However, the heterogeneity in study design, patient cohort, and volume of steroid irrigation limit the interpretations of these studies. Conclusions: Nasal irrigation with corticosteroids is beneficial and safe for the treatment of CRS. Future RCTs controlling for type of surgical intervention, CRS pheno- and endo-type, as well as dosing and duration of nasal corticosteroid irrigations are warranted.
- chronic rhinosinusitis
- nasal steroid irrigations
- nasal steroid sprays
- safety of nasal corticosteroids