Monoclonal antibody directed against CD40 ligand prevents acute allograft rejection in several models of solid-organ transplantation. This study describes the use of CD40 ligand as antirejection therapy in a mouse peripheral nerve allograft model. C3H mice received 8-mm nerve isografts (n = 2) or nerve allografts from C57BL donors. Treated animals (n = 11) received anti-CD40 ligand antibody applied to the graft and by intraperitoneal injections postoperatively. At 3 weeks, nerve histology from treated animals was comparable to isografts, whereas untreated allografts demonstrated virtually no signs of regeneration. Walking-track analysis demonstrated a trend toward improved functional recovery in treated animals. In conclusion, blockade of the CD40 pathway suppresses nerve allograft rejection in mice, and facilitates regeneration comparable to isografts.