Background The Kids Intracranial Injury Decision Support tool for Traumatic Brain Injury (KIIDS-TBI) tool is a validated risk prediction model for managing children with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and intracranial injuries. Electronic clinical decision support (CDS) may facilitate the clinical implementation of this evidence-based guidance. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the acceptability and usability of an electronic CDS tool for managing children with mTBI and intracranial injuries. Methods Emergency medicine and neurosurgery physicians (10 each) from 10 hospitals in the United States were recruited to participate in usability testing of a novel CDS prototype in a simulated electronic health record environment. Testing included a think-aloud protocol, an acceptability and usability survey, and a semi-structured interview. The prototype was updated twice during testing to reflect user feedback. Usability problems recorded in the videos were categorized using content analysis. Interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Among the 20 participants, most worked at teaching hospitals (80%), freestanding children's hospitals (95%), and level-1 trauma centers (75%). During the two prototype updates, problems with clarity of terminology and navigating through the CDS interface were identified and corrected. Corresponding to these changes, the number of usability problems decreased from 35 in phase 1 to 8 in phase 3 and the number of mistakes made decreased from 18 (phase 1) to 2 (phase 3). Through the survey, participants found the tool easy to use (90%), useful for determining a patient's level of care (95%), and likely to improve resource use (90%) and patient safety (79%). Interview themes related to the CDS's ability to support evidence-based decision-making and improve clinical workflow proposed implementation strategies and potential pitfalls. Conclusion After iterative evaluation and refinement, the KIIDS-TBI CDS tool was found to be highly usable and useful for aiding the management of children with mTBI and intracranial injuries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-467
Number of pages12
JournalApplied clinical informatics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022


  • children
  • clinical decision support
  • clinical information
  • mixed methods
  • traumatic brain injury


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