Urinary bladder masses are commonly encountered in clinical practice, with 95% arising from the epithelial layer and rarer tumors arising from the lamina propria, muscularis propria, serosa, and adventitia. The extent of neoplastic invasion into these bladder layers is assessed with multimodality imaging, and the MRI-based Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System is increasingly used to aid tumor staging. Given the multiple layers and cell lineages, a diverse array of pathologic entities can arise from the urinary bladder, and distinguishing among benign, malignant, and nonneoplastic entities is not reliably feasible in most cases. Pathologic assessment remains the standard of care for classification of bladder masses. Although urothelial carcinoma accounts for most urinary bladder malignancies in the United States, several histopathologic entities exist, including squamous cell carcinoma, ade-nocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, there are variant histopathologic subtypes of urothelial carcinoma (eg, the plasmacytoid variant), which are often aggressive. Atypical benign bladder masses are diverse and can have inflammatory or iatrogenic causes and mimic malignancy.