Update on ophthalmic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: Pathogenesis and precision medicine

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Purpose of reviewSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with manifestations in multiple organs including the eyes. Several ocular manifestations like dry eye, retinopathy, and choroidopathy have been linked with specific systemic manifestations like lupus nephritis or CNS disease. Furthermore, the presence of ocular manifesattions can correlated with the severity of SLE. Finally, some medications used in the treatment of uveitis can present with lupus-like disease. Therefore, communication between the ophthalmologist and rheumatologist is vital.Recent findingsOcular and systemic manifestations of SLE can be linked by common pathological processes including immune complex deposition, complement fixation, and vascular injury. Recent research correlating ophthalmic imaging with SLE disease has yielded heterogeneous results likely due to the clinical heterogeneity of SLE, but molecular technologies have and will continue to yield contributions to the emergence of new therapeutics for the treatment of SLE.SummaryOcular manifestations are prevalent in patients with SLE. The association with certain manifestations and other disease manifestations highlights the importance of collaboration between the ophthalmologist and rheumatologist. Additional research utilizing clinico-molecular techniques will likely continue to improve our knowledge in the treatment of SLE in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-589
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • drug-induced lupus
  • lupus nephritis
  • neuropsychiatric lupus
  • systemic lupus erythematosus


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