Update on Fetal Monitoring: Overview of Approaches and Management of Category II Tracings

Nandini Raghuraman, Alison G. Cahill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is widely used to assess fetal status in labor. Use of intrapartum continuous EFM is associated with a lower risk of neonatal seizures but a higher risk of cesarean or operative delivery. Category II fetal heart tracings (FHTs) are indeterminate in their ability to predict fetal acidemia. Certain patterns of decelerations and variability within this category may be predictive of neonatal morbidity. Adjunct tests of fetal well-being can be used during labor to further triage patients. Intrauterine resuscitation techniques should target the suspected etiology of intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Clinical factors play a role in the interpretation of EFM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-624
Number of pages10
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • Category II
  • Electronic fetal monitoring
  • Intrauterine resuscitation
  • Management

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