Well-circumscribed intra-axial CNS tumors encompass a wide variety of gliomas and glioneuronal tumors, usually corresponding to WHO grades I and II. Nonetheless, sometimes high-grade ‘diffuse’ gliomas such as gliosarcoma and giant cell glioblastoma can be relatively circumscribed but are often found to have foci of diffuse infiltration on careful examination, harboring distinct molecular alterations. These tumors are excluded from the discussion in this chapter with the current review emphasizing on lower-grade entities to include a brief description of their histology and associated molecular findings. Like elsewhere in brain biopsy evaluation, imaging is crucial and acts as a surrogate to gross examination. Given the circumscribed nature of these tumors, surgery alone is the mainstay treatment in most entities.
- Glioneuronal tumor