Unraveling the relationship between microbial translocation and systemic immune activation in HIV infection

Liang Shan, Robert F. Siliciano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic immune activation is a key factor in HIV-1 disease progression. The translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation occurs during HIV-1 infection and is associated closely with immune activation; however, it has not been determined conclusively whether microbial translocation drives immune activation or occurs as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In an important study in this issue of the JCI, Kristoff and colleagues describe the role of microbial translocation in producing immune activation in an animal model of HIV-1 infection, SIV infection of pigtailed macaques. Blocking translocation of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation dramatically reduced T cell activation and proliferation, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and plasma SIV RNA levels. This study directly demonstrates that microbial translocation promotes the systemic immune activation associated with HIV-1/SIV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2368-2371
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume124
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2 2014

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