Unique Variant of NOD2 Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis With Severe 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-Mediated Hypercalcemia and Generalized Osteosclerosis

Michael P. Whyte, Emilina Lim, William H. McAlister, Gary S. Gottesman, Lien Trinh, Deborah J. Veis, Vinieth N. Bijanki, Matthew G. Boden, Angela Nenninger, Steven Mumm, David Buchbinder

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities: autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of autoinflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA, hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported, although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH)2D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent, although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH)2D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a heterozygous germline missense mutation in NOD2 common in PGA (c.1001G>A, p.Arg334Gln). Thus, radiological and histological findings of OPT and severe hypercalcemia from apparent extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2D can complicate NOD2-associated PGA. Although the skeletal findings seem inconsequential, treatment of the hypercalcemia is crucial to protect the kidneys.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2071-2080
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume33
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2018

Keywords

  • ARTHRITIS
  • AUTOINFLAMMATION
  • BLAU SYNDROME
  • CARD15
  • DERMATITIS
  • GLUCOCORTICOIDS
  • GRANULOMA
  • GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE
  • HYPERCALCIURIA
  • METHOTREXATE
  • NEOPTERIN
  • NEPHROCALCINOSIS
  • NEPHROPATHY
  • NF-κB
  • NOD2
  • OSTEOBLAST
  • OSTEOCLAST
  • OSTEOPETROSIS
  • OSTEOSCLEROSIS
  • SARCOIDOSIS
  • SYNOVITIS
  • UVEITIS
  • VITAMIN D

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