Introduction: A subpopulation of children with anisometropic myopia, amblyopia, and neurobehavioral disorders is noncompliant with spectacle wear and ill-suited to correction using contact lenses. We report the results of refractive surgery in a series of these children treated using lensectomy alone (clear lens extraction) or lensectomy with simultaneous implantation of an intraocular lens (refractive lens exchange). Methods: Clinical course and outcome data were collated retrospectively in a group of 7 children and adolescents (mean age, 9.1 years; range, 4-20 years) with neurobehavioral disorders and noncompliance with spectacle wear for anisometropic myopia. Myopia in the 7 eyes ranged -11.9 to -24.5 D (mean, -16.7 D). Goal refraction was 0 to + 4 D. Correction was achieved by lensectomy in 5 eyes and lensectomy with intraocular lens implantation in 2 eyes. Primary posterior capsulectomy/subtotal vitrectomy was performed during the primary procedure in 5 eyes (71%). Mean follow-up was 3.8 years (range, 0.5-5.4 years). Results: Myopia correction averaged 17.3 D. A total of 86% (6 eyes) were corrected within ± 3 D of the goal refraction and the remaining 14% to within ± 4 D. Uncorrected visual acuity improved postoperatively in all 7 eyes, albeit modestly (average gain 0.14 Snellen fraction; gain from a mean 20/2550 to a mean 20/130). Myopic regression averaged ∼0.43 D/year. Capsular opacification necessitated YAG-laser membranectomy in the 2 eyes that had preservation of the posterior capsule at the primary procedure. Retinal detachment has not occurred in any of the eyes during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Refractive myopic lensectomy reduced high anisometropia and improved functional vision in children who have high myopia beyond the range of excimer laser correction and who will not wear glasses. Further study is indicated to determine the long-term safety of this procedure in similar pediatric populations.