The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the number of new head and neck tumor entities, most of which are genetically defined. DEK::AFF2 carcinoma is one of the most recently defined neoplasms; it shows a non-keratinizing squamous morphology and occurs in the sinonasal region. We present an unusual neoplasm that was found to harbor a novel fusion involving AFF2. The case was encountered in our clinical practice. Immunohistochemistry was performed along with targeted next generation sequencing (NGS). The case presented as a metastasis to a cervical lymph node from an unknown primary, in a 49-year-old man. The tumor consisted of sheets of primitive round cells which were strongly positive for synaptophysin and chromogranin but negative for cytokeratins, S-100 protein, WT-1, desmin, and many other markers. NGS uncovered CHD4::AFF2. We found a CHD4::AFF2 fusion in a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor. Although it is just a single case, the presence of a novel fusion in a neoplasm that is otherwise not classifiable suggests that it could be a distinct entity within a possible family of AFF2-rearranged tumors. Molecular analysis should be considered for any unclassified round cell tumor in the head and neck, as additional cases will be needed to further elucidate this area.
- Neuroendocrine tumor