The role of interferons, either pathogenic or protective, during autoimmune diabetes remains controversial. Herein, we examine the progression of diabetes in NOD mice lacking the type I (IFNAR) or type II (IFNGR) interferon receptor and, for the first time, in mice deficient in both receptors (double knockout [DKO]). All mice were bred, maintained, and monitored in a single specific pathogen-free facility with high female and low male diabetes incidence. Our expectation was that removal of interferon signaling would reduce autoimmune destruction. However, examination of diabetes incidence in the IFNAR- and IFNGR-deficient NOD mice showed a reduction in females and an increase in males. In DKO mice, diabetes occurred only in female mice, at decreased incidence and with delayed kinetics. These results show that interferons act as both positive and negative modulators of type 1 diabetes disease risk dependent on sex.