Type 0 ulnar longitudinal deficiency

Timothy G. Havenhill, Paul R. Manske, Archit Patel, Charles A. Goldfarb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Purpose: To describe the characteristics of type 0 ulnar longitudinal deficiency (ULD) in which deficiencies are present in the hand and carpus without involvement of the forearm or elbow. Methods: A retrospective chart, radiograph, and clinical photograph review (1960-2005) of patients previously diagnosed with ectrodactyly, hand hypoplasia, or ULD was performed to evaluate for a diagnosis of ULD isolated to the hand. Results: Thirteen extremities were identified. Three extremities had complete absence of the small-finger ray (phalanges and metacarpal) and 6 extremities had complete absence of the ring- and small-finger rays. Four hands showed hypoplasia of the small finger, 3 in conjunction with a ring- and small-metacarpal synostosis and 1 in isolation. Three extremities also had radial-sided hypoplasia or aplasia of the rays. Additional common findings included simple syndactyly, delta phalanx, and carpal fusions, most commonly of the capitohamate joint. Conclusions: Patients with isolated ulnar-sided hand deficiency such as ectrodactyly of the ring and/or small fingers or synostosis of the small metacarpal of the ring finger in the presence of a normal forearm may be diagnosed as having type 0 ULD. We propose that type 0 be added to the current classification systems for ULD representing those extremities with deficiencies isolated to the hand.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1288-1293
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2005


  • Ectrodactyly
  • Metacarpal synostosis
  • Ulnar clubhand
  • Ulnar longitudinal deficiency


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