Purpose To assess the 2-year effectiveness and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for gastric varices (GVs) in liver transplant recipients. Materials and methods Eleven liver transplant recipients underwent consecutive BRTO for GVs at four institutions. Patients included eight (73%) men and three (27%) women with mean age of 56 years ± 12 (SD) (range: 26–67 years). Underlying cause of liver transplantation was hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis in five (45%), alcohol- and HCV-related cirrhosis in three (27%), primary biliary cirrhosis in two (18%), and alcoholic cirrhosis in one (9%). Five (45%) patients underwent BRTO for actively bleeding GVs, three (17%) for high-risk GVs, and three (17%) for augmentation of portal venous flow through obliteration of gastrorenal shunts. Mean time between liver transplantation and BRTO was 78 months (range: 0.1–276 months). Technical success, GVs obliterative rates, and immediate complications were recorded. Post-BRTO hemorrhagic, transplant, and overall survival rates were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months. Results All (100%) procedures were technically successful. Complete GVs obliteration was achieved in ten patients (91%). Two major complications (18%) occurred in the immediate post-procedure period. One patient developed complete portal vein thrombosis, and another patient developed consumptive coagulopathy, ultimately leading to death. No post-BRTO hemorrhagic recurrences were seen at 6, 12, or 24 months. One patient (9%) had delayed upper gastrointestinal bleeding at 34 months after the procedure which was managed conservatively. Transplant and overall survival rates were 91% at 6, 12, and 24 months. Conclusion BRTO has high technical success and complete GVs obliterative rates in liver transplant recipients with few complications and high graft survival rates.
- Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
- Gastric varices
- Interventional radiology
- Liver transplant recipient
- Liver transplantation