twist is required in head mesenchyme for cranial neural tube morphogenesis

Zhou Feng Chen, Richard R. Behringer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

502 Scopus citations


To understand the role of twist during mammalian development, we generated twist-null mice. twist-null embryos died at embryonic day 11.5. Their most prominent phenotype was a failure of the cranial neural folds to fuse. Mutant embryos also had defects in head mesenchyme, somites, and limb buds. Chimera analysis suggested that head mesenchyme was required for cranial neural tube closure and that twist acted in a cell-autonomous manner in this tissue. In addition, in the head mesenchyme region of chimeras, twist-null cells were segregated from wild-type cells, and in the forebrain they lacked mesenchymal characteristics. These results suggest that twist regulates the cellular phenotype and behavior of head mesenchyme cells that are essential for the subsequent formation of the cranial neural tube.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)686-699
Number of pages14
JournalGenes and Development
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 1995


  • Neural tube defects
  • mouse chimera
  • neural crest
  • transcription factor


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