Twelve Weeks of Intermittent Caloric Restriction Diet Mitigates Neuroinflammation in Midlife Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study with Implications for Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease

Farzaneh Rahmani, Laura Ghezzi, Valeria Tosti, Esther Lu, Sheng Kwei Song, Anthony T. Wu, Jayashree Rajamanickam, Kathleen A. Obert, Tammie L.S. Benzinger, Bettina Mittendorfer, Laura Piccio, Cyrus A. Raji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a prototype neuroinflammatory disorder with increasingly recognized role for neurodegeneration. Most first-line treatments cannot prevent the progression of neurodegeneration and the resultant disability. Interventions can improve symptoms of MS and might provide insights into the underlying pathology. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intermittent caloric restriction on neuroimaging markers of MS. METHODS: We randomized ten participants with relapsing remitting MS to either a 12-week intermittent calorie restriction (iCR) diet (n = 5) or control (n = 5). Cortical thickness and volumes were measured through FreeSurfer, cortical perfusion was measured by arterial spin labeling and neuroinflammation through diffusion basis spectrum imaging. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of iCR, brain volume increased in the left superior and inferior parietal gyri (p: 0.050 and 0.049, respectively) and the banks of the superior temporal sulcus (p: 0.01). Similarly in the iCR group, cortical thickness improved in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal gyri (p: 0.04 and 0.05 in right and left, respectively), the left superior temporal gyrus (p: 0.03), and the frontal pole (p: 0.008) among others. Cerebral perfusion decreased in the bilateral fusiform gyri (p: 0.047 and 0.02 in right and left, respectively) and increased in the bilateral deep anterior white matter (p: 0.03 and 0.013 in right and left, respectively). Neuroinflammation, demonstrated through hindered and restricted water fractions (HF and RF), decreased in the left optic tract (HF p: 0.02), and the right extreme capsule (RF p: 0.007 and HF p: 0.003). CONCLUSION: These pilot data suggest therapeutic effects of iCR in improving cortical volume and thickness and mitigating neuroinflammation in midlife adults with MS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-273
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume93
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • arterial spin labeling
  • caloric restriction
  • diffusion basis spectrum imaging
  • multiple sclerosis
  • neuroinflammation
  • prevention
  • relative cerebral blood flow

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