Interleukin-1 receptor family members (ILRs) and Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are key players in immunity and inflammation and are tightly regulated at different levels. Most cell types, including cells of the innate and adaptive immune system express ILRs and TLRs. In addition, IL-1 family members are emerging as key players in the differentiation and function of innate and adaptive lymphoid cells. IL-1R2 and IL-1R8 (also known as TIR8 or SIGIRR) are members of the ILR family acting as negative regulators of the IL-1 system. IL-1R2 binds IL-1 and the accessory protein IL-1RAcP without activating signaling and can be released as a soluble form (sIL-1R2), thus modulating IL-1 availability for the signaling receptor. IL-1R8 dampens ILR-and TLR-mediated cell activation and it is a component of the receptor recognizing human IL-37. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the structure and function of IL-1R2 and IL-1R8, focusing on their role in different pathological conditions, ranging from infectious and sterile inflammation, to autoimmunity and cancer-related inflammation. We also address the emerging evidence regarding the role of IL-1R8 as a crucial checkpoint molecule in NK cells in anti-cancer and antiviral activity and the potential therapeutic implications of IL-1R8 blockade in specific pathological contexts.
- Inflammation-associated cancer