Recent studies have identified the importance of biologically active molecules such as neurohormones in disease progression in heart failure. More recently, it has become apparent that in addition to neurohormones another portfolio of biologically active molecules termed cytokines are also expressed in the setting of heart failure. This article will review the role of tumor necrosis factor-induced signal transduction and the process of left ventricular remodeling.
- Signal transduction
- Tumor necrosis factor