Recent studies have identified the importance of biologically active molecules such as neurohormones in disease progression in heart failure. More recently, it has become apparent that in addition to neurohormones another portfolio of biologically active molecules termed cytokines are also expressed in the setting of heart failure. This article will review the role of tumor necrosis factor-induced signal transduction and the process of left ventricular remodeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S379-S386
JournalJournal of cardiac failure
Issue number6 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Dec 2002


  • Hypertrophy
  • Remodeling
  • Signal transduction
  • Tumor necrosis factor


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