Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Expression Is Mediated by Protein Kinase C following Activation by Ionizing Radiation

Dennis E. Hallahan, Subbulakshmi Virudachalam, Eliezer Huberman, Ralph R. Weichselbaum, Matthew L. Sherman, Donald W. Kufe

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149 Scopus citations


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production following X-irradiation has been implicated in the biological response to ionizing radiation. Protein kinase C (PKC) is suggested to participate in TNF transcriptional induction and X-ray-mediated gene expression. We therefore studied radiation-mediated TNF expression in HL-60 cells with diminished PKC activity produced by either pretreatment with protein kinase inhibitors or prolonged 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment. Both treatments resulted in attenuation of radiation-mediated TNF induction. Consistent with these results, we found no detectable induction of TNF expression following X-irradiation in the HL-60 variant deficient in PKC-mediated signal transduction. The rapid activation of PKC following 7-irradiation was established using an in vitro assay measuring phosphorylation of a PKC specific substrate. A 4.5-fold increase in PKC activity occurred 15 to 30 s following irradiation, which declined to baseline at 60 s. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of phosphoproteins extracted from irradiated cells demonstrated in vivo phosphorylation of the PKC specific substrate M, 80, 000 protein at 45 s following X-irradiation. These findings indicate that signal transduction via the PKC pathway is required for the induction of TNF gene expression by ionizing radiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4565-4569
Number of pages5
JournalCancer research
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 1 1991


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