The aim of this study was to examine the effect of TNFα (i.e., a predominant proinflammatory cytokine produced during chronic gut inflammation) on colonic uptake of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) and free thiamin, forms of vitamin B1 that are produced by the gut microbiota and are absorbed via distinct carrier-mediated systems. We utilized human-derived colonic epithelial CCD841 and NCM460 cells, human differentiated colonoid monolayers, and mouse intact colonic tissue preparations together with an array of cellular/molecular approaches in our investigation. The results showed that exposure of colonic epithelial cells to TNFα leads to a significant inhibition in TPP and free thiamin uptake. This inhibition was associated with: 1) a significant suppression in the level of expression of the colonic TPP transporter (cTPPT; encoded by SLC44A4), as well as thiamin transporters-1 & 2 (THTR-1 & -2; encoded by SLC19A2 & SLC19A3, respectively); 2) marked inhibition in activity of the SLC44A4, SLC19A2, and SLC19A3 promoters; and 3) significant suppression in level of expression of nuclear factors that are needed for activity of these promoters (i.e., CREB-1, Elf-3, NF-1A, SP-1). Furthermore, the inhibitory effects were found to be mediated via JNK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. We also examined the level of expression of cTPPT and THTR-1 & -2 in colonic tissues of patients with active ulcerative colitis and found the levels to be significantly lower than in healthy controls. These findings demonstrate that exposure of colonocytes to TNFα suppresses TPP and free thiamin uptake at the transcriptional level via JNK- and Erk1/2-mediated pathways.
- colonic uptake
- free thiamin
- human differentiated colonoid monolayers
- thiamin pyrophosphate